The focus outcomes of the Phoenix program are the five C’s: confidence, competence, connection, compassion, and character. This outcome framework was adapted and expanded from the original five C’s model of Positive Youth Development developed by Bowers, et al. (2010) and commonly used in PYD programs throughout the nation. The compassion construct was developed using Pommier’s (2011) compassion scale. The student evaluation is usually given to students during the third follow-up meeting at their school. Students are asked to complete both a quantitative and qualitative survey, where they are asked to reflect on themselves before and after the Phoenix experience. The quantitative data is used to assess changes in these five outcome areas after participating in the program. The qualitative survey is analyzed for themes that emerge from students’ reflections in order to paint a picture of the program outcomes, as described in students’ words. This model of Positive Youth Development outcomes complements and aligns with other common frameworks, including the Developmental Assets, a research-based theoretical construct which identifies a range of environmental and interpersonal strengths known to enhance educational and personal outcomes for youth (Benson, 2007).
Confidence: An internal sense of overall positive self-worth and self- efficacy; one’s global self-regard, as opposed to domain-specific beliefs. In addition to self-worth and self-efficacy, this includes the sub-outcomes of purpose and future and physical appearance.
Connection: Positive bonds with people and institutions that are reflected in mutual exchanges between the individual and peers, family, and school in which both parties contribute to the relationship.
Competence: Positive view of one’s actions in domain specific areas including social, academic, cognitive, and emotional. Social competence pertains to interpersonal skills such as communication and conflict resolution. School grades, attendance, and test scores are part of academic competence. Cognitive competence includes cognitive skills such as goal setting and persistence and resilience. Emotional competence pertains to one’s abilities to manage stress and difficult emotions.
Character: Respect for societal and cultural mores, possession of standards for correct behaviors, a sense of right and wrong (morality), and integrity. This includes social conscience, valuing diversity and respecting difference, and striving to live from personal values.
Compassion: A sense of empathy and concern for others. Compassion includes opening one’s awareness to the suffering of others and not avoiding or disconnecting from it, recognizing pain as a shared human experience, and experiencing feelings of kindness towards others and the desire to alleviate their suffering.